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Kyle

Page history last edited by wikiuser0001 10 years, 7 months ago

 Photosynthesis:

Energy from light!

 

Here, plants use the energy from  sunlight to power the formation of nutrients.

 

     Photosynthesis is the process of turning the energy of light into sugars. These sugars are packed with energy usable by plants, people, or any plant-eating critter. Here are some basics of why photosynthesis is important, including a quick overview of what is occurring during photosynthesis. The overview discusses the location of where photosynthesis occurs and what two stages work in tandem to make photosynthesis possible.

 

Why it's Important

 

The fossil fuels that are the cornerstone of our energy began as carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Through photosynthesis, ancient forests turned that carbon dioxide into organic compounds, leading to the their underground transformation into the crude oil we use today. Humanity is more dependent on photosynthesis than ever before. Thus, any product that stems from crude oil can be attributed to photosynthesis. All of our food's energy content can also be attributed to photosynthesis if one were to follow what something or someone ate continuously down the food chain. Our way of life revolves around a process that we are actually unable to perform. Without photosynthetic organisms, life on Earth would only exists among bacteria whose energy source is not related to the sun.

 

Overview

 

 The basic formula for the process of photosynthesis is as follows:

              

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light ---> Sugar + Oxygen

(In the Presence of Chlorophyll)

 

          

Figure 1 http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/irrigation-photosynthesis.gif

 

The Chloroplast : The site of photosynthesis

 

     All forms of life are built by cells. A cell is the smallest portion of an organism. In more complicated forms of life, such as plants, people and bugs, different types of tissue are made by different types of cells that have specialized tasks. In trees, for example, the cells that make the trunk are specialized for transporting nutrients up and down the tree, while the leaves are wide and broad to capture light for photosynthesis. Those leaves have something that the bark cells do not, and those are chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are organelles, which are a small bodies within the cell that performs certain duties. The chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis. These chloroplasts also contain chlorophyll, which is the molecule responsible for the capturing of light energy.

 

Structures found within the Chloroplast

 

  • Thylakoids - Disc-shaped membranes stacked into Granum. This is where photosynthesis actually takes place.
  • Lumen - The are inside of the thylakoids.
  • Stroma - The 'open-space' within the chloroplast. 
  • Outer/Inner Membrane and Inter-membrane Space - These two membranes serve as gates for transporting things in and out of the chloroplast.
  • Stroma Lamellae -  connects the thylakoids to each other

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/chloroplasts/images/chloroplastsfigure1.jpg

 

Photosynthesis in Two Steps : Light Reactions and the Calvin Cycle

 

Taking a quick review of the earlier equation: Carbon Dioxide + Water --> Sugar + Oxygen. This is actually condensed from two equations, coming from the two ends of photosynthesis: Light Reactions and Calvin Cycle.

 

1. Light Reactions - Uses Light energy to recharge molecules.

 

Water + Energy-poor Molecules+ Light ---> Oxygen + Energy-RICH Molecules

 

2. Calvin Cycle - Uses those energy-charged molecules to power the creation of a sugar.

 

Carbon Dioxide + Energy-RICH Molecules ---> Sugar + Energy-poor Molecules

 

Put those two equations together....

 

Water + Energy-poor Molecules +Carbon Dioxide + Energy-RICH Molecules + Light ---> Oxygen + Energy-RICH Molecules + Sugar + Energy-poor Molecules

 

Now, because the energy-poor/rich molecules are present on both sides of the equation, they can be taken out to provide a net result of:

 

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Light ---> Sugar Oxygen

 

In Conclusion

 

The process of photosynthesis is perhaps the most important aspect of life on Earth. This could not be emphasized enough. All energy consumed by non-photosynthetic beings can be traced to something able to perform photosynthesis, whether it is a plant or something else. Finally, there is one more end to photosynthesis. Our bodies, in fact have its own energy-using process called Cellular Respiration. This process uses up the sugar and oxygen, while creating carbon dioxide and water. With Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration working together, we basically get life in a nutshell.

 

 

 

Sources:

 

Becker, W., Kleinsmith, L., Hardin, J., & Bertoni, G. (2009). Chapter 11 - Phototropic Energy Metabolism: Photosynthesis. The World of the Cell 7th Ed. 293-320.

 

Blankenship, R.E., Berkowitz, G., Govindjee,  Portis, A., & Shopes, R.J.  (2007). Photosynthesis. In McGraw-Hill’s Access Science: Encyclopedia of Science & Technology Online. Retrieved February 25, 2010, from http://www.accessscience.com.ezproxy.library.unlv.edu/content.aspx?searchStr=photosynthesis&id=511700

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Comments (6)

wikiuser0001 said

at 7:37 pm on Mar 22, 2010

I noticed the 'printable' version is trash.

wikiuser0001 said

at 5:52 pm on Mar 23, 2010

I keep thinking this is simple, but I just had someone read it and was totally confused. THIS IS HARD DANG IT. If you guys think this is at all complicated, you should see the refrences I got my information from. That stuff goes into so much detail about the structures of proteins involved and other types of pigment used to capture more light. Also, this is only 1/2 of the full picture. The other half is called cellular respiration, which is the process of how we use the sugars created from photosynthesis.

Richard Wood said

at 3:01 am on Mar 24, 2010

Photosynthesis is a complicated subject, you need to get really basic if you're going to try to explain it to the masses.

Also, a couple of nitpicks: algae ARE bacteria, you make it seem as if they are not; higher trophic levels are not necessarily bigger (i.e. a carnivore can be smaller than the herbivore it eats); the comment about everything we know that isn't a metal traces back to photosynthesis doesn't really make any sense, either to someone with a science background or to lay folk.

wikiuser0001 said

at 3:41 pm on Mar 24, 2010

I know all that, its just that I am trying to refrain from going into too much depth about everything. And algae are part of the eukaryote domain, while bacteria is in the bacteria domain...hooda thunk??? I'll probably be revamping this entire thing by the time its due.

Richard Wood said

at 4:02 pm on Mar 24, 2010

My bad, I was thinking of cyanobacteria, forgot there were regular algae as well. LOL.

wikiuser0001 said

at 7:16 pm on Mar 28, 2010

What I think is great, is how my print-version for a technical audience goes into so much more depth than this, I was able to write this entire entry off the top of my head. The only research I needed to do was to find a simple visual for photosynthesis (the flower picture above).

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